ANNALS OF ABBASI SHAHEED HOSPITAL AND KARACHI MEDICAL & DENTAL COLLEGE <p style="font-weight: 400;">The scientific journal, Annals of Abbasi Shaheed Hospital and Karachi Medical and Dental College is a quarterly peer-reviewed journal being published for over 20 years, recognized by PMDC, HEC (Y-Category) and cited on Emerging Sources Citation Index (Thomson Reuters), IMEMR, Pakmedinet. The Editor-in-Chief is a member of World Association of Medical Editors (WAME), Eastern Mediterranean Association of Medical Editors (EMAME), and Pakistan Association of Medical Editors (PAME).</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>ARTICLE PROCESSING:</strong></p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">The articles can be submitted online via eJManager throughout the year and on an average, it takes maximum one year to print an article. For any queries please email at</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">1.Processing Fee: Rs. 1500/-<br>2.Publication Fee: Rs. 1000/- (per side of PDF)<br>3.Publication Fee of Pictorial Quiz: Rs. 1000/-<br>...(Include processing and Publication Both):</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Subscription per issue:<br>In Pakistan: Rs.1000/-<br>In Karachi: Rs.800/-<br>Bangladesh &amp; India: Rs.1200/-<br>UK: £ 40<br>USA &amp; other Countires: $ 60</p> en-US (Prof. Dr. Syed Mahmood Haider) Mon, 06 Apr 2020 12:34:00 +0000 OJS 60 The Impacts of 'Coronavirus' and Probable Outcomes: A South Asian Perspective <p>Widespread atrocities may lead to an apocalypse to be faced by the entire global community if not addressed at the earliest. The exact scenario faced by the international health connoisseurs is depicted to be challenged from the 'Coronavirus'1. There are three human corona viruses, 229E (HCoV-229E), HCoV-OC432 and the most dangerous (SARS-CoV) which causes immense respiratory syndrome that has shook the world3, with adverse associated impacts yet to be witnessed</p> Muhammad Jamaluddin, Saad Jamal, Mah Noor Copyright (c) 2020 ANNALS OF ABBASI SHAHEED HOSPITAL AND KARACHI MEDICAL & DENTAL COLLEGE Mon, 06 Apr 2020 11:54:50 +0000 The Role Of IGF-I in Females Selected for Assisted Reproductive Technique (Art) <p>Objective: To assess the role of Insulin growth factor-I (IGF-I) in females selected for assisted reproductive technique (ART).<br>Methods: In this cross-sectional study 133 infertile females were recruited for Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The antral follicle count (AFC), pre-ovulatory follicle count (PFC), total doses of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were estimated. IGF was measured. Successful pregnancy conception after<br>ICSI was confirmed by an intrauterine gestational sac with cardiac activity after embryo transfer. Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis was also done to find out the area under the curve for clinically pregnant samples using IGF-I. Binary logistic regression analysis was done to estimate the odds ratio with 95% confidence interval for clinical pregnancy using IGF-I; all p-values less than 0.05 were considered significant.<br>Results: Study results revealed that IGF-I gave positive association with clinical pregnancy outcome, and is a more reliable predictor of clinical pregnancy. IGF-I gives 39.8% positive correlation with number of oocytes fertilized. These correlations were statistically significant with p-values less than 0.05. Area under the curve for clinical pregnancy using IGF-I, was 72.4% which reveals the importance of IGF-1 in predicting the outcome of ART.<br>Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study we came to the conclusion that IGF-I is a better and cheaper option and an important tool in the field of infertility.</p> Huma Salahuddin, Nargis Anjum, Rehana Rehman, Sadia Rehman, Winay Kumar, Naseema Ahmed Jan Copyright (c) 2020 ANNALS OF ABBASI SHAHEED HOSPITAL AND KARACHI MEDICAL & DENTAL COLLEGE Mon, 06 Apr 2020 11:57:47 +0000 Evaluation of Serum Uric Acid as a Marker of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease <p>Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the correlation of radiologically diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with serum uric acid (SUA) levels.<br>Methods: It is a case control study conducted in private sector tertiary care hospital. A total of 200 subjects were involved in this study after calculation of sample size. The study participants were recruited from the medicine ward while the healthy controls were taken from the general population. Non probability consecutive sampling technique was employed. Inclusion criteria was patients who were diagnosed with fatty liver through abdominal ultrasonography. Exclusion criteria was patients suffering from any other chronic illness that can lead to an echogenic liver on ultrasound (viral hepatitis<br>and diabetes) and history of alcohol consumption. Ethical approval for the study was taken from IRB. Data were entered and analysed using IBM SPSS version 23.0. Mean with standard deviation for age, BMI, SBP, DBP and SUA were reported between two study groups.<br>Results: Highly significant results were observed between two groups; diseased and controls. Mean uric acid levels were found to be significantly higher in NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease)cases as compared to controls, with serum uric acid showing an affirmative and positive linear relationship with fatty liver. An increase in BMI and systolic and diastolic blood pressures was also seen in NAFLD group as compared to controls which indicates that BMI is a comorbid for cardiac complications among the NAFLD patients.<br>Conclusions: The study determined that uric acid levels elevate with progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. This finding brings a new insight of uric acid in clinical practice. Increase in serum uric acid levels might serve as a trigger for physician to screen for NAFLD. An increase in BMI and systolic and diastolic blood pressure in NAFLD patients indicates underlying causes leading to cardiovascular complications in these patients.</p> Sadia Rehman, Fatima Mehboob, Nargis Anjum, Huma Salahuddin, Winay Kumar, Nosheen Wasi Copyright (c) 2020 ANNALS OF ABBASI SHAHEED HOSPITAL AND KARACHI MEDICAL & DENTAL COLLEGE Mon, 06 Apr 2020 12:00:58 +0000 Mean Mesiodistal Width Determination of Canines in Patients Reporting to a Tertiary Care Hospital at Karachi <p>Objective: Objective of our study was determination of mean mesiodistal width of maxillary and mandibular canines in males and females in Pakistani population for ideal replacement of these teeth.<br>Methods: It was a cross sectional study. Data was obtained from patients referring to orthodontic department at a tertiary care hospital. Informed consent was taken verbally from the patients recruited for study. Sample size was 130. Patients with both genders and having age range of 17-21 were included.<br>Patients having unerupted, partially erupted, any prosthetic replacement, any restoration of maxillary or mandibular canines were excluded from the study. Mesiodistal measurement of both the upper and lower canines were obtained on the plaster casts with the help of digital Vernier caliper. All the measurements were noted on a preformed proforma (Annex-1).<br>Results: They were 130 patients who were recruited for the study. The mean age of the patients in this study was 18.90 ± 1.523 years. Mean maxillary canine width mesiodistally was found to be 8.502 mm with standard deviation of 0.615 mm. Mean width of mandibular canine mesiodistally was found to be 7.44 mm with having standard deviation of 0.764 mm.<br>Conclusions: This study helped us to conclude that the canines for right and left side were not exactly similar to each other. It was found that sexual dimorphism is present in the widths of maxillary and mandibular canines mesiodistally. It is also concluded from the study that males have greater mesiodistal widths of canines than females</p> Muhammad Ashfaq, Syed Shah Faisal, Sadia Rizwan, Syed Sheeraz Hussain Copyright (c) 2020 ANNALS OF ABBASI SHAHEED HOSPITAL AND KARACHI MEDICAL & DENTAL COLLEGE Mon, 06 Apr 2020 12:03:44 +0000 Magnitude of Sodomy on Clinical and Chemical Analysis <p>Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the age groups of sexually abused victims which was reported at the different police stations of Karachi.<br>Subject and Methods: This was a single centre, retrospective study on 54 patients by using non-probability sampling technique. The duration of study was from January 2016 till January 2018 at Abbasi Shaheed Hospital, Karachi. The data was collected from the Medico legal Section from more than 45 police<br>station cases that were reported in Abbasi Shaheed Hospital (ASH) and the data was analysed in statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 22. Simple frequency distribution of the gender, age, clinical assessment and the lab DNA analysis were identified. The stratification tables were made<br>thereafter for the gender, age, lab DNA analysis and clinical assessment.<br>Results: Only one female was reported to be the sexual abuse victim and rest of 53 sexual abuse victims were males.Age groups i.e. 10-14 years and 30-39 years were reported to be with the greater number of sexual abuse victims 16 (29.6%) and 9 (16.7%) respectively). It was found to be common among males in the comparison of females.<br>Conclusion: In conclusion sexual abuse was common in younger age group i.e. 10-14 years. It seems the children are targeted for the sodomy may be because they are unaware of these sexual activities.</p> Mir Ghulam Ali Talpur, Iqbal Ahmed Khan, Abdul Waheed, Hari Ram, Shahid Nezam, Syed Pervaiz Alam Copyright (c) 2020 ANNALS OF ABBASI SHAHEED HOSPITAL AND KARACHI MEDICAL & DENTAL COLLEGE Mon, 06 Apr 2020 12:06:31 +0000 Comparative Analysis of the Anthropometric Parameters Among the Ethnic Groups of Karachi <p>Objective: Objectives of this study were to determine the average height, weight, BMI, BSA and LBM among the different ethnic groups that exist in population of Karachi and to determine whether these anthropometric parameters vary significantly among the ethnic groups.<br>Methods: It was a prospective cross-sectional study that was carried out at Ziauddin University and Hospital from March 2012 to May 2014. In this study healthy volunteers aged 21 years and above were recruited. Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), body surface area (BSA) and lean body mass (LBM) of healthy volunteers were taken into account through the standard protocol after following inclusion and exclusion criteria. The study was approved by the ethical review committee IRB and BASR committee of Ziauddin University Clifton Karachi.<br>Results: Greatest height 169.5 ± 9.1 cm and weight 73.4 ± 15.4 kg was found in Pathans. Highest body mass index (BMI) 27.1 ± 4.3 kg/m2, body surface area (BSA)1.8 ± 0.2 m2 and lean body mass (LBM) 52.6 ± 9.6 kg was found in Hazarah group. Weight, BMI and BSA was found to vary significantly among the ethnic groups (p&lt;0.05) while height and LBM was found to vary insignificantly among the ethnic groups. Anthropometric parameters vary significantly between the genders among all the ethnic groups. Beside BMI all the anthropometric parameters were significantly greater in males.<br>Conclusion: Anthropometric parameters noted among the ethnic groups in Karachi were very close to the studies done in the different provinces of Pakistan. In almost all the ethnic groups, BMI males were found to have significantly greater anthropometric parameters as compare to the females.</p> Mahrukh Kamran, Rabia Rahan, Sahar Mubeen, Munazza Suharwardy Obaid, Hira Ahmed, Shazia Fahmi Copyright (c) 2020 ANNALS OF ABBASI SHAHEED HOSPITAL AND KARACHI MEDICAL & DENTAL COLLEGE Fri, 10 Apr 2020 11:15:57 +0000 Impact of Education on Knowledge of Women Regarding Food Intake During Pregnancy: A Hospital Based Study <p>Objective: To assess the nutritional knowledge of pregnant women about food intake during pregnancy and to find out association between education level and nutritional knowledge.<br>Methods: It was a cross-sectional study performed in Obstetrics and gynaecology outpatient department of private tertiary care centre Liaquat College of Medicine and Density and Darul-Sehat hospital from June 2016 to December 2016. The study was conducted among pregnant ladies who visited the antenatal clinics where they were interviewed regarding food intake and nutritional requirement in pregnancy using a pretested questionnaire. Their knowledge was then score into good, average and poor and then relation with educational level was calculated.<br>Results: A total of 372 pregnant women with age range of 17-38 years and mean age of 27.45 ± 7.24 years were anticipated. The result showed that majority of the patients (213/372) 57% have some knowledge about increase requirement of food intake in pregnancy and (189/372) 50% had knowledge of increased iron intake. Limited knowledge of pregnant women regarding increase in water requirement is surprising. The misconceptions of hot and cold properties of food still exist in our society with a fear of abortion and contribute to avoidance of some important nutrition from diet during pregnancy.<br>Those with education level of graduation were more knowledgeable and study also pointed towards direct association with socioeconomic status.<br>Conclusion: The awareness regarding the increase intake of food and iron supplementation is sub optimal in our community and need better augmented campaigns and awareness programs. However there is strong co relation between educational level and information.</p> Aliya Naseem Akhtar, Rabia Jamil, Sanober Tariq Copyright (c) 2020 ANNALS OF ABBASI SHAHEED HOSPITAL AND KARACHI MEDICAL & DENTAL COLLEGE Mon, 06 Apr 2020 12:11:47 +0000 Prevalence of Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis Among Patients with Nasal Polyps <p>Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the frequency of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis among patients with nasal polyps.<br>Methods: This study was performed at Department of ENT and Head Surgery, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Center, Karachi during July 2018 to January 2019. Patients with nasal polyp fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled. Sino-nasal contents were removed during operation and divided into two parts. Sample one was preserved in formalin solution and sent for histopathology to verify eosinophilic mucin and polyps. Another sample was preserved in 10% of potassium hydroxide solution to observe fungal hyphae by culture and fungal staining SPSS v-23.0 was used for the analysis.<br>Results: Total of one hundred and fifty patients was included in the present study. There were sixtyone females (40.7%) and eighty-nine (59.3%) males. The mean age of patients was 30.5 ± 11.4 years. Out of 150 patients with nasal polyps, 33(22.0%) had allergic fungal rhino sinusitis (AFRS). In this study, it was found that, AFRS was associated with gender and smoking (p=0.036).<br>Conclusion: AFRS is perceived generally among patients with nasal polyps. In this way, each patient with nasal polyp ought to be assessed for the existence of AFRS</p> Sameer Raeesuddin Qureshi, Atif Hafeez Siddiqui, Shafaque Mehboob, Naseer Ahmed, Aftab Imtiaz Copyright (c) 2020 ANNALS OF ABBASI SHAHEED HOSPITAL AND KARACHI MEDICAL & DENTAL COLLEGE Mon, 06 Apr 2020 12:15:53 +0000 Review on Portable Dental Services in Different Regions of America as an Example for Pakistan to Increase Overall Oral Healthcare <p>Objective: To assess the reach and effectiveness of mobile dental vans as a delivery method for providing oral healthcare access to people of low socioeconomic status.<br>Methods: A literature review was conducted to identify mobile delivery methods of oral healthcare, the basic aim of which was to address the increasing oral health disparity concern. Forty one articles met the inclusion criteria. Out of the 41 articles, only 7 analysed the coverage and reach of the mobile dental clinics. Data was compiled from the literature in order to assess, evaluate and compare the different mobile dental care delivery methods in dentistry.<br>Results: There is an association between transportation barrier and lack of access to oral healthcare. Thus, mobile dentistry helps deliver dental care to vulnerable populations.<br>Conclusion: Mobile dental clinics are effective methods in improving access to oral healthcare among people of low socioeconomic status, which can be taken as an example for Pakistan in order to increase overall oral healthcare access.</p> Fahad Khan, Aisha Aziz, Mudassir Hussain, Shazia Iqbal, Maraia Saleem Copyright (c) 2020 ANNALS OF ABBASI SHAHEED HOSPITAL AND KARACHI MEDICAL & DENTAL COLLEGE Mon, 06 Apr 2020 12:22:37 +0000 Self-reported Glycemic Control and Associated Factors Among Diabetic Outpatients: A Cross Sctional Analysis <p>A cross-sectional survey was carried out to determine the factors associated with self-reported glycemic control among outpatients with diabetes mellitus type 2 visiting a private tertiary care hospital of Karachi, from July to October, 2018. A total of 185 participants of either gender, aged 30 years, with obesity and a self-reported diagnosis of diabetes mellitus type 2 for at least 1 year were included in the study and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed on statistical package for social sciences version 21 whereas chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used for inferential analysis. The study results showed that regular medicine intake, regular exercise and weight change during the previous year were significantly associated with self-reported glycemic control of the patients (p&lt;0.05 for all). The importance of patient related factors therefore should not be overlooked while managing patients of diabetes type 2 to achieve a better glycemic control.</p> Syed Muhammad Zulfiqar Hyder Naqvi, Syed Imtiaz Ahmed Jafry, Mudassir Hussain, Shazia Sarwat Iqbal Copyright (c) 2020 ANNALS OF ABBASI SHAHEED HOSPITAL AND KARACHI MEDICAL & DENTAL COLLEGE Mon, 06 Apr 2020 12:29:41 +0000 Pictorial Quiz <p>A 60 year old male patient reported to the OPD with the complaint of pain in lower left first mandibular molar for 3 days. The pain was continuous, dull and radiated to the ipsilateral jaw and ear, it aggravated on chewing and was relieved by analgesics. He was a known diabetic and hypotensive and was on medication. Patient was habitual of betel quid and smoking since a long time. Past dental history showed a partial denture on lower anteriors.</p> Sana Iqbal, Mehwash Kashif Copyright (c) 2020 ANNALS OF ABBASI SHAHEED HOSPITAL AND KARACHI MEDICAL & DENTAL COLLEGE Mon, 06 Apr 2020 12:32:45 +0000