Evaluation of Frequency of Different Types of Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Tertiary Care Hospital


  • Zille-Huma Dow University of Health Sciences
  • Akhtar Ali Baloch Dow University of Health Sciences
  • Farnaz Siddiqui Department of Ophthalmology Dow University of Health Sciences
  • Zunaira Nawaz
  • Tayyaba Iqbal Department of Dermatology, Dow University of Health Sciences
  • Maria Khan Department of Anatomy, Dr. Ishrat-ul-Ebad Khan Institute of  Oral Health Sciences. Dow University of Health Sciences
  • Ihsan Bashir Fellow in Diabetes and Endocrinology in BIDE


Diabetes Mellitus, type 2, frequency, retinopathy



Objective: To evaluate frequency of different types of retinopathy in Type 2 diabetic patients.

Methods:  It was Cross-sectional study Conducted in department of General Medicine and Eye of  Dow University Hospital OPD. A total of 350 diabetic patients more than 20 years old were recruited in the study between January 2021 to December 2021.

Results: Out of 350 patients retinopathy was present in 98 patients (28%) while absent in 252 (72%).  Regarding types of retinopathy mild Non Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy was present in 36 (36.7%), moderate Non Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy was found in 16 (16.3%) and severe in 4 (4.1%). Proliferative Retinopathy in 6 (6.1%). Maculopathy was  present in 6 (6.1%). Clinical significant macular edema in 14 (14.3%) and advance retinopathy in 16 (16.3%) of diabetics. Cup to disk ratio was normal in 90 patients while higher in 8  patients with retinopathy. Males (63.3%) were  more prone to develop  retinopathy as compared to female (36.7%). Out of 98 patients with retinopathy, age of 44 (44.9%) of patients was <55 years and 54(55.1%) was >55 years. Patients having retinopathy, 30 (30.6%) have duration <10 years while 68(69.4%) have duration >10 years. Uncontrolled diabetics (77.6%) develop retinopathy more frequently than controlled ones.

Conclusions: Diabetic Retinopathy is one of the major complications of diabetes so in order to prevent visual loss it is vital to detect it early. We conclude that chances of developing retinopathy in diabetics is directly related to age of patients, duration of disease and uncontrolled diabetes.

Author Biography

Zunaira Nawaz

Assistant Professor of General Medicine. Dow University of Health Sciences Karachi Pakistan